Month: July 2016

Colliding Galaxies

That was a cool spring morning. After a long stroll I was sitting in my favourite corner chair in a wayside dhaba on the Inter-Galaxy Highway No. 1951. The morning edition of Times of Space lay on the table near my finished coffee mug. I was yet to recover from the shock I received after going through the page one story with headline Clash of Titans. The report said – The Milky Way galaxy is heading for a collision with the Andromeda galaxy (M31).

Down memory lane I looked back one billion years. In some one of my births I was born in a small planet called the Earth, a member of Solar Family headed by lone yellow star the Sun that lies in the minor spiral arm called the Orion-Cygnus arm at the backwater of the barred spiral galaxy named Milky Way. So I always felt hidden infatuation for this galaxy – my mother galaxy one time.

Stellar collision may be an extreme rarity as the stars are so far apart in comparison to their sizes but galaxy collisions are quite common in our universe. In fact galaxies are unevenly distributed throughout the universe and the gravity makes them clump together into groups. Milky way belongs to a such group called Local Group containing a giant spiral Andromeda, irregular type Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) along with a bunch of dwarf galaxies altogether some around thirty plus.

Galaxy clusters typically contain hundreds or even thousands of galaxies. So it is quite possible for galaxies to collide, as many of them share relatively small area of space. How many galaxies are there? Less than a million or more than a billion – nobody still knows. One may safely think that most of the galaxies have definitely undergone several collisions or tidal interactions during their lifetime which may have resulted in the peculiarities in some of their structures.

In galaxy evolution collisions between galaxies are common. Due to weak distribution of matter in galaxies there is in fact no direct collision like a head-on collision between two cars running in opposite direction on same track. If two galaxies pass close to each other, due to action of each one’s gravity on other, their galactic tide can cause both galaxies to deform. Thus one galaxy’s gravity disturbing another galaxy is usually called interaction or tidal interaction. A major form of interaction may be called a collision.

The galactic tide is the tidal force experienced by objects subject to the gravitational field of a galaxy. Such tidal force causes a body in close proximity to stretch out and thus to be deformed. The closer an object is to another the more intensely it is affected by the gravity of other object as the gravitational attraction increases with decreasing separation between objects. This is not only true for a body as a whole it is true for different parts of a body as well. When a galaxy comes in close proximity with another the gravity of one pulls away the surface of the other from its core, causing it to inflate in the direction of approaching galaxy. Depending on the size and mass the shape of each galaxy accordingly changes.

Spiral Galaxies in collision

Above picture shows two interacting galaxies that are being distorted due to gravitational interaction between them.

A satellite galaxy disturbing the primary galaxy’s spiral arms is an example of minor interaction. Sometimes when the interacting galaxies may not have enough momentum to continue travelling after collision, they fall back on each other leading to amalgamation forming a single galaxy. The process of merging of a large galaxy with its companion through tidal gravitational interaction is referred sometimes as Galactic Cannibalism.

Most commonly the resulting galaxy formed due to the gravitational merger of two or more galaxies is an irregular galaxy although elliptical galaxies may also result. During one of my earthly lives in twenty-twenty first century as per the popular calendar system in vogue at that time I read that a galactic cannibalism was occurring between the Milky Way and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds and also a minor interaction was taking place between Milky Way and Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy.

Galactic interactions or collisions frequently lead to a burst of new star formation. The giant clouds of gas and dust that are relatively thin and of low density may be compressed due to collision and become increasingly denser as a result of undergoing gravitational collapse, which leads to formation of new generations of stars where normal star formation may have ceased long back.

It is believed that in galactic evolution a galaxy has a strong influence of its environment i.e. other galaxies of its group. It is thought that most galaxies in this universe experience several collisions or tidal interactions over course of their lifetime that resulted in altering their structures, accelerating their evolution as well as induced star formation, building up of heavy elements in the universe, formation of planetary systems and production and distribution of galactic cosmic rays.

Tremendous amount of energy is associated with galactic collision. If two galaxies with masses of the order of 1012 solar masses or 2 x 1042 kilogram meet with a typical relative velocity of 300 kilometres per second the collision energy will be of the order of 1053 Joules. How much is this energy? Well this is equivalent to about total energy involved with 108 – 109 numbers of supernovae!!!

Even with so much huge energy involvement the galaxy collision is not considered as a high-energy phenomenon in usual collision physics sense because of modest encounter velocity of galaxies that is about 0.1% the speed of light. Yet this energy has strong influence in galactic evolution.

We never expect to observe any live galaxy collision like supernova as it is extremely slow by terrestrial standard as the timescale is of the order of 300 million years. Only we can speculate and interpret the phenomena from the various snap-shots taken at random times. Based on theory and observational data astrophysicists make computer simulations which can predict some outcome but nobody can give any guaranty how far it is from reality.

Now that the Andromeda and Milky Way are going to collide within 2 billion years and they are expected to merge to form an elliptical galaxy. What will happen to my solar system? The planet earth will long back be gulped by the sun, which will be in red giant stage then. Of course I doubt whether terrestrial life still exists on earth as by 1 billion years the sun has become enough hot in course of its evolution to destroy all life form on earth. Will sun face a violent collision with any other star of Milky Way or of Andromeda?  Very unlikely. One of the interesting aspects in galaxy collision is the fact that matter in the galaxy are so sparsely distributed that there is almost no chance for any matter-matter collision. The cross-section of a star like sun is about 1017 m2, while the surface density of stars near the sun is of the order of 10 per light year squared i.e. 10-32 per metre squared and thus the collision chance becomes 1 in 1015 for a typical star. Yet prediction says there is a 50% chance that the Solar System will be swept out three times further from the galactic core.

Yet there is some uncertainty. Whether Andromeda will directly collide with Milky Way or make a near miss making some tidal interaction is a big question.


If Two Stars Collide

The morning edition of my favourite daily ‘The Times of Space’ had the following headlines today:

  • CERN Scientists were successful in colliding proton with proton at a record 14,000 GeV in Large Hadron Collider.
  • Two cars made head-on collision in EM Bye pass last evening – one killed
  • Passenger train rammed into goods train near Warangal. More than 60 feared killed.
  • Mid-air collision killed all the passengers on board near Santa Barbara.

My Gosh! Is there no news other than collisions? Oh! Yes, and finally in a coloured box –

Hubble Space Telescope catches evidence of collision between two stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397. (No casualties!).

Well ! We Sky Lovers always think big.

What will happen if two Stars collide?

Can stars collide?  British astrophysicist James Jeans suggested from simple calculation in the early twentieth century that not a single one of the hundred billion stars in our Milky Way galaxy has ever hit another. But the conventional notion that the distances between stars in our galaxy are just to vast for stars to collide, is wrong. Stellar collision may be an unheard event in our environs of the Sun but not an uncommon sight in especially globular clusters where there is very high star traffic.

All the members of such a cluster were supposed to be born roughly at the same time. They are somewhat older stars whose temperatures and brightness evolve in lockstep. Allan Sandage of the Carnegie Institution found in early 1950s in globular clusters, anomalously hot and bright stars called “Blue Stragglers”, which after discarding a dozen theories are now best explained as the outcome of star collisions supported with strong evidence provided by Hubble Space Telescope.

F Paresce, G Meylan and M Shara of Space Telescope Science Institute, found in 1991 that the very centre of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae is jammed with blue stragglers exactly where they should exist in greatest number as predicted by collision theory. D Zurek, Rex Saffer and M Shara during 1997 found the mass of a blue straggler as twice the mass of the most massive ordinary stars in the same cluster by direct measurement, which was thought to be an outcome of stellar coalescence. S G Djorgovsky of California Institute of Technology and his team noted lack of Red Giants near the core of globular clusters. Star collision was held responsible for stripping away their outer layers and transforming them into a different breed.

The Uhuru satellite launched in 1970 to survey the sky for x-ray emitting objects found an anomalously high number of x-ray sources in globular clusters which again are thought to be an outcome of stellar collision by astrophysicists.

Basic Processes that Make Stellar Collisions more Probable :

Evaporation :

Globular clusters contain millions of stars packed in a sphere of typically 60 – 150 light-years in diameter : an equivalent volume near the sun would contain only a hundred stars. These stars zip around on ever changing orbits like bees in a swarm. The close encounter of two or more massive stars redistributes the energy of the system and lower mass stars picking up more energy eject out of the cluster like a molecule from the surface of liquid. The remaining stars loosing energy huddle at the core. Eventually the tightly packed stars began to collide – a process typically occurs over billions of years.

Gravitational Focusing :

In cosmic scale, each star sweeps a very narrow region of space – the average distance between stars is much larger than the stars themselves. But the probability of impact is not a simple matter of a star’s physical cross-section as shown by Jack Hills and Carol Day of University of Michigan during 1975. Stars in globular cluster move at 10 to 20 km per second and gravity gets enough time to act during close encounters of two stars. Without gravity the stars may make head-on collision only but as a result of gravity stars pull each other deflecting their path increasing thereby the chance of collision up to 10,000 times. Over the past 13 billion years half the stars in the core of some of such clusters may have undergone one or more collisions.

Tidal Capture :

Two isolated stars may pair up as a result of very-near-miss encounter suggested A Fabian, J E Pringle and M J Rees of University of Cambridge. Normally in a close encounter two stars approach, gather speed, swing past each other and fly apart unless make contact. But if one of them be a neutron star or a black hole, its enormous gravity can bend the approaching one out of shape resulting in dissipation of energy and thereby preventing its escape – a process called Tidal Capture. The neutron star or black hole in successive passages devours its prey spewing x-rays.

Impact Scenario :

The outcome of any two-body collision depends on the momentum of colliding objects and the collision conditions like whether it is head-on or a side kiss. The astronomers get no chance to video capture a stellar collision. They developed 28 different impact scenarios out of inter-star collisions of seven different basic types of stars viz. black hole, neutron star, white dwarf, brown dwarf, main sequence, red giants and super giants with the help of super computers and a few simple principles that govern the overall effect. Stellar density has the most important role to play in the crashing outcome – the much higher density star will barely suffer any damage like a bullet blowing a watermelon to shreds.

M Shara and his colleagues studied a head-on collision between a sun like star and a white dwarf during the seventies decade. When a sun like star is hit by a white dwarf – about 10 million times denser and traveling at a whopping speed of 600 km a second, a massive shock wave would be created and that would compress and heat the entire star above thermonuclear ignition temperatures. The white dwarf would take only an hour to smash through the star creating irreversible damage. As a result the superheated star would release as much fusion energy in that hour as it normally would in 100 million years. The pressure built up due to compression would force gas outwards at a speed much greater than escape velocity resulting in blowing up of star itself apart in a matter of a few hours. The white dwarf would escape like a highway drunk truck driver least bothering about any fatal damage it created.

The frames of events will look different for impact between two main sequence stars as studied by A Cameron of Yeshiva University and F Seidl of NASA in 1970. The stars would compress and distort each other into half-moon shapes with rise in temperature and density not enough to ignite thermonuclear burning and finally fuse themselves into one within a few hours with a few percent loss of mass. Computer created movies on star collisions are available at and

Crash Crops :

Super giant Red giant Main Sequence  Brown Dwarf White Dwarf Neutron Star Black Hole
Black Hole black hole+ disk + white dwarf black hole+ disk +white dwarf black hole + disk black hole + disk black hole + disk black hole + disk black hole
Neutron Star neutron star or black hole + disk + white dwarf neutron star or black hole + disk + white dwarf neutron star or black hole + disk neutron star or black hole + disk neutron star or black hole + disk neutron star or black hole + disk
White Dwarf white dwarf + white dwarf white dwarf + white dwarf  white dwarf white dwarf or neutron star neutron star or white dwarf    
Brown Dwarf brown dwarf + white dwarf brown dwarf + white dwarf  main sequence main sequence or brown dwarf      
Main Sequence main sequence + white dwarf main sequence + white dwarf main sequence        
Red giant white dwarf + white dwarf white dwarf + white dwarf           
Super giant white dwarf + white dwarf            

Well ! We Sky Lovers should always think bigger.

What will happen if two Galaxies collide?

Reference : 

  1. Scientific American, vol. 287, No. 5, November 2002
  2. Websites




সাতসকালে মাস্ট্রামশাই নাদনঘাটে গিয়ে

মাছ কিনেছেন ডজন কিলো সাতটা কড়ি দিয়ে।

খোলসে পুঁটি পারশে বাটা

ইলশে পেটি কাতলা কাটা

আজ দুপুরে ভোজের মেলা মাছের ছবি দিয়ে।



চশমা পরা চশমা পাখী আমের ডালে বসে

স্লেট পেন্সিল নিয়ে আবার কিসের হিসেব কষে?

পোকায় খেল দশটা টাকা

এদিক ডানার পকেট ফাঁকা

গিন্নি তেনার মাথায় আবার Doveএর সাবান ঘষে।

Human Aspects of Sri Ramakrishna



March 11, 1885. Thakur Sri Ramakrishna was talking with devotees in Balaram Bose’s House. He was telling Girish Ghosh:

…If you seek God, then seek him in Man. He manifests Himself more in man than in any other thing. If you see a man endowed with ecstatic love, overflowing with prema, mad after God, intoxicated with His love, then know for certain that God has incarnated Himself through that man…

Thakur told Master Mashai:

…There is no doubt that God exists in all things; but the manifestations of his power are different in different beings. Again in some Incarnations there is a complete manifestation of God’s power. It is the Shakti, the power of God that is born as an Incarnation…

Thakur told Girish:

…And we see God Himself if we but see His Incarnation…

Each and every object in this Universe – animate as well as inanimate – reveals Brahman. But there are variations in Shakti i.e. the capacity of revelation. Man being the most intelligent being in the world it is believed that Brahman or God or Shakti whatever you call reveals Him with more power in the human beings than in any other beings. In some human beings in which God or Brahman manifests Him best on earth – we call him the Incarnation of God or Avatar. Leaving aside the stories of Purana where we find God incarnated as Fish or Tortoise or Boar or a half lion-half man form (Nrisingha), generally the Avatars are all human beings like Sri Ram, Sri Krishna, Gautam Buddha, Jesus Christ, Hazrat Muhammad, Sri Chaitanya and lastly our Thakur Sri Ramakrishna.

Now in this entire Universe every object possesses some definite properties. The movements of objects are guided by certain rules and laws. All the animate beings follow the sequence of birth and death. Starting from electrons to massive galaxies, from a microbe to human beings all are bounded by Nature’s rules. Every human being is sensitive, may be to different degrees – to joy and sorrow, to love and hatred, to physical pain and mental agony, to anger and irritation, to ecstasy and grief, to passion and joviality, to sympathy and apathy, to hunger and thirst. Every human body suffers from illness and recovers as well. Even when God incarnates in human form, He is no exception. He cannot be out of Nature’s law. Like other human beings He also would have same sufferings but what makes Him different from others is His capacity of tolerance, His understandings regarding the causes and circumstances of such sufferings. In human form an Avatar is indistinguishable from other human beings but He is quite different from others in human nature as He attains the highest of all moral and spiritual values.

“Panchabhuter phande, Brahman pore kande”

On Sunday, April 15, 1884, Thakur was telling to one devotee Prankrishna:

…But there is a greater manifestation of God in man. You may ask – ‘How it is possible for God to be incarnated as a man who suffers from hunger, thirst and the other traits of an embodied being and perhaps also from disease and grief?’ The reply is – ‘Even Brahman weeps, entrapped in the snare of the five elements. Don’t you know how Rama had to weep, stricken with grief for Sita.’

On another occasion Thakur told Master Mashai (Sunday, June 2 1883 at Adhar Sen’s House):

…Everyone is under the authority of Divine Mother, Mahamaya. Even the Incarnations of God accept the help of Maya to fulfil their mission on earth…  

Sri Ramakrishna is now widely revered and worshipped as the Avatar. During his lifetime some of his ardent devotees firmly believed that he was an Avatar and some were sceptic. Even Swamiji had not accepted him as Avatar till he experimented on him even at his death bed. Not only as Avatar Swamiji later saluted him as Avatara Baristhaya.

Dr. Mahendra Lal Sarkar, who treated him for cancer during the last days of his mortal life, was a man of scientific ideas and logical reasoning and a celebrated personality of that time. Whenever he came to see his patient Sri Ramakrishna, he passed hours leaving aside his other jobs. He did not believe in the doctrine of Divine Incarnation but he commented on Sri Ramakrishna – “As a man I have the highest regard for Him”.

If not as Avatar, Sri Ramakrishna was widely recognized by the then educated people of elite society as a holy God-intoxicated man, an honest simple man though illiterate but with profound knowledge in religious thoughts. People were attracted to him for his selfless love, capacity to make one understand complicated religious ideas with plain and simple language and with parables and examples drawn from everyday life, for his purity, selflessness and humble attitude to everybody and frequent ecstatic mood (Samadhi). Those who met him even once couldn’t forget him in their lifetime as is evidenced from many published memoirs.

Sri Ramakrishna was a Paramahansha – a Purnajnani. But from his overall appearance nobody could ascertain that he was a man who realized the supreme reality. He had no Rishi-like or a great Mahatma-like appearance such as clad in ochre or deep red robe with matted hair and strings of Rudraksha. Rather he looked like a most ordinary rural gentleman wearing short dhoti and talking in rustic language instead of Sanskrit verse. Even in his photographs we find him clad in dhoti only or in dhoti – punjabi – coat – chaddar and shoe. Can we match him with pictures of other traditional gods like Lord Shiva or Lord Vishnu? Yet Sri Ramakrishna is worshipped by millions today in the same place with our traditional deities.

Sri Ramakrishna was a Brahman-jnani. He was supposed to remain calm and same in all states – bliss or grief. But as a human being he was very soft-hearted. So we find him in grief crying for his nephew Akshay or his mother Chandramani Devi when they died. While talking with Master Mashai at Cossipore garden house regarding his grief-stricken wife Thakur said:

…Oh! Grief pushes out devotion…..Krishnakishore had two sons. They were of same age as Bhavanath and each had two university degrees. They both died. And Krishnakishore, jnani that he was, could not at first control himself. How lucky I am that I have none.  

He was very kind hearted. Hriday, His nephew once served him a lot for quite sometime at Dakshineswsar but also tormented him simultaneously. Once Thakur, unable to bear Hriday’s torture went to Ganges to commit suicide. Hriday was later driven out from the garden for some reason by the temple authority. On one Sunday he came to meet Thakur and waited outside. On hearing his arrival Thakur leaving his devotees came out to see him. Hriday wept and lamented for his past deeds. Compassionate Thakur also had tears in his eyes and consoled Hriday:

…One cannot avoid such sorrows in the world. Pleasure and pain are inevitable in worldly life…    

Sri Ramakrishna was omniscient. Ramlal His nephew mentioned in his memoirs that once he decided to visit his native village Kamarpukur and came to Sri Ramakrishna to inform Him. Thakur smiled and waiving his fingers above His head said him that he would not be able to go. When Ramlal went to seek permission for leave from the authority his leave was not sanctioned at that time. Yet we find Thakur many a times suffering from tension.

Once, Rakhal (Swami Brahmananda) had been laid up with an attack of fever, while staying at Brindavan. We find Sri Ramakrishna very much worried about him and vowed to worship the Divine Mother Chandi for his recovery. On another occasion Rakhal was not feeling well. Thakur was greatly worried about him and said to the devotees:

… Will soda water help him? What am I to do now? Rakhal please take the prasad from the Jagannath temple.

He loved Keshab Chandra Sen very much. During his illness, Sri Ramakrishna wept and prayed before Divine Mother for his recovery. He offered fruits and sweets to Divine Mother for his well-being.

Sri Ramakrishna was married. But He also took sannyas a few years after his marriage for Vedanta Sadhana. But after becoming an all-renouncing he never left his wife. He rather regarded his wife as one form of his Divine Mother. As a dutiful husband he was worried for the maintenance of his wife Janani Sarada Devi, in future when he no longer would be in this mortal world. He invested some money from his own earnings (salary received as an employed pujary of Bhavatarini Temple) in the zamindari of Balaram Bose, an ardent devotee, who later used to give half-yearly interest of Rs30.00 to Holy Mother.

Sri Ramakrishna had good physique – tall and healthy. But twelve years of intense sadhana made him frail as he passed an extremely hard life then. When he was ill he was treated by good physicians and never had he healed himself by any miracle. He frequently visited his devotees in Kolkata coming all the way from Dakshineswar by horse-carriage because of his weak health. He lamented that Gouranga and Nityananda roamed door to door on foot chanting Harinam but he couldn’t move without carriage. He prayed to His Divine Mother:

…I should like to enjoy the society of Thy jnanis and bhaktas. So give me a little strength that I may walk hither and thither to visit those people. But She did not give me the strength to walk…

One day while going through the pine-grove alone in an ecstatic mood, Sri Ramakrishna had fallen near the railing and dislocated a bone in His left arm. Unable to bear pain, He, weeping like a child, said to the Divine Mother:

…O Brahmamayi! O Mother! Why hast thou done this to me? My arm is badly hurt?

Turning to devotees He asked:

…Will I be all right again? 

The devotees consoled Him as one would a child and said: “Surely. You will be quite well again.”

Again we find Him saying to the Divine:

…What wrong have I done, Mother? Do I ever do anything? It is Thou Mother who doest everything. I am the machine and Thou art its operator…

We find him talking and laughing, like a child who though ailing, sometimes forgot His illness and laughed and played about.

Why was he so impatient? He told to devotees (Master and Mani Mullick):

…Now and then I become impatient about my arm. I show it to this or that man and ask him whether I shall get well again…… This childlike impatience of mine is nothing new. I used to ask Mathur Babu to feel my pulse and tell me whether I was ill.

Well! Where there is my faith to God? Once I was going to Kamarpukur in a bullock-cart, when several persons came up to the cart with clubs in their hands. They looked like highwayman. I began to chant the names of the gods. Sometimes I repeated the names of Rama and Durga and sometimes ‘Om Tat Sat’, so that in case one failed another would work. (To Master Mashai) Can you tell me Why I am so impatient?…

Master Mashai replied:

“Your mind Sir is always absorbed in Samadhi. You have kept a fraction of it on your body for the welfare of the devotees. Therefore you feel impatient now and then for your body’s safety.

Sri Ramakrishna replied:

…That is true. A little of the mind is attached to the body. It wants to enjoy the love of God and the Company of devotees.

…Since my arm was injured a deep change has come over me. I now delight only in the NARALILA – the human manifestation of God. NITYA and LILA. The NITYA is the individual Satchidananda and the LILA or sport, takes various forms, such as the LILA as God, LILA as deities, the LILA as man and the LILA as the universe…

After a long intense Sadhana Sri Ramakrishna, by the grace of Divine Mother, realized that God has incarnated in His human body. Attaining the highest level of spirituality, he remained mostly in so high mental state that it was difficult for him to come down in the mental level of common people.  Sri Ramakrishna knew that he was committed to Divine Mother to fulfil a definite mission for the well-being of mankind. He had to establish new easy and acceptable religious doctrine based on harmony of different religions and to show the mankind the true object and the way of life. So he sometimes deliberately tried to bring down his mental level to match with other devotees and admirers and during then he also behaved like a common human being.

At the fag end of life Sri Ramakrishna suffered from killer disease cancer for almost a year. Many devotees believed that He could have healed himself by applying his spiritual power if he only wished. Some others thought seeing his sufferings that probably he had fallen from grace. It was not that easy to understand Sri Ramakrishna – the unknown tree. His every action and every incident of his life were purposeful and had some meaning. He has come to earth to show path for both householders and monks. His own life is an example, an ideal for both the classes and is a harmony of householder’s life and monastic life. During his last illness his all-renouncing direct disciples assembled together for His treatment at Cossipore garden house and being associated together for quite a long time for a common cause, soon a strong bond of love developed between them that resulted later in forming Ramakrishna Sangha.


Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna (Translated by Swami Nikhilananda)







শুনতে পেলাম পাটনা গিয়ে

সর্ষে বেটে বাটনা দিয়ে

লঙ্কা কাঁচা দিয়ে তাতে

সুতোয় বেঁধে কলার পাতে

ইলিশ খাবে গরম ভাতে, কোন রকম চাট না নিয়ে।



এই তো সেদিন দিনদুপুরে শ্যামবাজারের মোড়ে

কে বা কারা পেছন থেকে কলার চেপে ধরে

বললে এবার পূজোর দিনে

গাইতে হবে পয়সা বিনে

ফিরতে হবে রাত বিরেতে দুই পা গাড়ী করে।

My First blog post

My First blog post

I am Dr Sanat Kumar Banerjee. I started this blog today to express some of my thoughts on science and philosophy, religion, astronomy and cosmology, on birds and some of my rhymes. I shall also post some articles written by my father Late Digendra Chandra Banerjee who was a veteran Police Officer. I was a scientist by profession and did Ph D in Physics from Kolkata University.